Part 2- The First Issue of Contention of the Mind-Body Problem- Establishing the Truth of Property-Dualism for Consciousness
In the second part of my Substance Dualism series, we turn to focusing on the first major issue of contention regarding the Mind-Body Problem; the nature of conscious properties and states (also relations, etc.). It is important to note that in Part 2, we do not assume the truth of substance dualism (the second issue of contention) and we can happily assume that “we” are in fact just our physical brain and central nervous system as the skeptics like to claim; instead our focus is specifically on the duality of the various mental properties and states that the brain produces on a phenomenological level.
We first provide 2 major arguments in favour of a property-dualist position vs. physicalist position; these include what I call the “Differences Argument” and the “Knowledge Argument”. Finally, we end the series discussing and assessing 5 major physicalist versions that attempt to account for mental properties and states and show them to be found wanting in that regard.
Recommended Sources (for further study):
a) General Sources:
Crash Course Videos- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SJROTXnmus (9 min video = by Crash Course lots of good videos on here) or history of Brain science = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SJROTXnmus (12 mins) & what is consciousness = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jReX7qKU2yc (10 min video).
b) Philosophical Behaviourism (Physicalist Theory #1- Reductionist);
What it is- https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/ and/or https://www.iep.utm.edu/behavior/ .
Arguments For and Against Logical/Philosophical Behaviourism- http://www.jimpryor.net/teaching/courses/mind/notes/behaviorism.html or https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-philosophie-2003-1-page-37.htm .or OR Videos = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gEVQQp3gwX0 (approx. 5 min on the different types of Behaviourism) & longer video = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lwat9ZFpHNU (1-hour video) ) & finally a video by world-famous Behaviorist B.F. Skinner = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NpDmRc8-pyU .
c) Type and Token Identity Theories (Physicalist Theories #2 & 3- Reductive and Non-Reductive respectively);
General Video Sources- 1-Hour long video = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O68L7TsVtiU&list=PLXKKIUdnOESEjAA24UVcMwR6R8TPZd540&index=3 OR a 30 min video = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NzrnHIF6kBE OR a shorter 5 min video on Identity theory = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_BdmI-jJHQ .
J.J.C Smart (Type Identity Theorist)= https://www3.nd.edu/~jspeaks/courses/2006-7/20208/smart-identity-theory.html (short write up).
General Longer Written Sources = https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mind-identity/
David Papineau (Token Identity Theorist) = https://www.federaljack.com/ebooks/Consciousness%20Books%20Collection/D.%20Papineau%20-%20Thinking%20about%20Consciousness.pdf (his 168 page book) &/or video source with him here = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z80Jxj98dzI (1-hour) & https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T16iOoEyCcs (a shorter 30 min video).
d) Functionalism (the Artificial Intelligence or Software View- Non-Reductive Physicalist Theory #4);
General sources = https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/functionalism/ or see a short 5 min video on it here = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a5AwaFsp5Os or longer more detailed videos here = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mwMPFj6b–8&index=4&list=PLXKKIUdnOESEjAA24UVcMwR6R8TPZd540 & objections to Functionalism here = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZmEk1lq_Wgk&index=5&list=PLXKKIUdnOESEjAA24UVcMwR6R8TPZd540 . OR see an 18 page write up on it here = http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/philo/faculty/block/papers/1981.whatisfunctionalism.pdf .
Functionalist Proponent Jaegwon Kim Sources = his 27 page article on Functionalism and the Multiple Realization Problem = http://www.sfu.ca/~jillmc/Kim1992.pdf & also https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E3AmEMi7_UA (short 5 min critique of his theory).
Proponent David Lewis sources = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3jQwDP_Lyc .
e) Eliminative Materialism (Physicalist Theory #5- Non-Reductive);
General Sources = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=acjpo_3j-B8&list=PLXKKIUdnOESEjAA24UVcMwR6R8TPZd540&index=6 (Video on what it is) & associated video with objections to it here = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zlcgGDklUjg&index=7&list=PLXKKIUdnOESEjAA24UVcMwR6R8TPZd540 . Also here = https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/materialism-eliminative/ . Write ups = https://www.sfu.ca/~kathleea/docs/Eliminative%20materialism.pdf (25 pages)
Proponent Paul Churchland and his wife = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzT0jHJdq7Q OR https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hu0DDOdPlig OR https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xrFqhOvNtWM. A short 6-page write up by Paul Churchland here = http://philosophyfaculty.ucsd.edu/faculty/rarneson/Courses/churchlandphil1reading.pdf .
f) One of our Listeners Ken, feels that I have slightly misrepresented Buddhism during my brief mention of it at the beginning of the show on “Mere Property Dualism”, he was kind enough to share some sources for people to get a better understanding of Buddhist beliefs on the nature of consciousness;
A Buddhist Critique of Cartesian Dualism in the Cognitive Science
Naturalizing Mind and Qualia
William S. Waldron
And since you mentioned free will several times.
Just Another Word for Nothing Left to Lose: Freedom, Agency and Ethics for Mādhyamikas
Jay L Garfield
g) Also, another listener named Darren (and skeptical physicalist) has provided a link to a counter of what I presented in Part 2 (along with some good sources for people to check out on the nature of qualia in relation to some up to date neuroscientific findings/studies, see here = https://docs.google.com/document/d/1tiTn9hpT22xRhl7liN1Vv4onXjbbYJVkQliMIqZ2_5Q/edit?usp=sharing .
Further Darren is also currently working on developing an argument that he says proves the “non-existence” of the soul- thus here he tries to make a positive claim of his own that we are in fat just the brain (this is more appropriate to Parts #3 and 4 but will include it here as well) = https://docs.google.com/document/d/1omOjhum3Qj2pGd8qlG57DvJDzprAPS2aDPKqbgItcno/edit?usp=sharing .